Senate Democrats blocked the nomination in the first successful filibuster of a Supreme Court nominee in almost 50 years.
The Supreme Court seat was controversial before Trump was even elected, as Democrats have long believed that the seat was "stolen" by Republicans due to the fact that Scalia died during the a year ago of Barack Obama's presidency, which would give him the power to nominate a justice. GOP Sen. Johnny Isakson of Georgia, who has been recovering from back surgery, did not vote. Drop by your senators' offices between April 10-22 to express your anger about the undemocratic and outrageous confirmation of Gorsuch to our nation's highest court. "Throughout his career, Judge Gorsuch has shown an unparalleled depth of understanding and respect for our Constitution".
Republican National Committee Chairwoman Ronna McDaniel, meanwhile, cast Gorsuch's confirmation as "another promise President Trump has fulfilled to the American people".
Mr Gorsuch was confirmed within 65 days of his nomination, but the battle to appoint another justice to the court began with the death of Justice Antonin Scalia, a conservative rock star, in February a year ago.
They were also in opposition to Mr Gorsuch because of what Senate Republicans had done in denying a hearing to Merrick Garland, a judge nominated by former President Obama in 2016.
U.S. Senator John Cornyn (R-TX) spoke on the senate floor ahead of the senate's confirmation of Gorsuch and lauded the judge's reputation. "His deep understanding of the separation of powers enlivens his opinions".
Gorsuch had been strongly opposed by Democrats in the Senate because he was appointed to the life-time position by a president many feel won't be serving his full term.
Trump is hosting President Xi Jinping of China at the Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida on Friday, and White House press secretary Sean Spicer told reporters a swearing-in ceremony for Gorsuch will be held next week.
Republicans exulted in the victory. "He is, in short, a distinguished jurist with an impeccable legal and academic record", he said.
Sen. James Inhofe of Oklahoma said of McConnell's tactic: "No. 1, it's courageous".
Conservatives hailed Gorsuch's confirmation.
Trump announced the 49-year-old Colorado native as his pick to join the Supreme Court in late January, contending that he is "a man of our country and a man who our country needs - and needs badly - to ensure the rule of law and the rule of justice".
The Senate's 52 Republicans threatened to use the nuclear option to break the filibuster and did so on Thursday. Many Democrats were still tight over Garland being passed over, as they should be, and noted that Gorsuch was super conservative.
The final vote count was 54 in support to 45 in opposition, passing a simple majority - all that was needed after Republicans voted to trigger the so-called nuclear option, which changed Senate rules.
"I believe it will make this body a more partisan place", said Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, D-N.Y.
As a result of the rules change voted on by Republicans, every Supreme Court nominee going forward will only require 51 votes in order to be confirmed.