"They agreed to increase cooperation and work with the worldwide community to convince the DPRK to peacefully resolve the issue and abandon its illicit weapons programs", US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has said of the talks' results.
The talks come shortly after Mr Trump hosted Chinese leader Xi Jinping for a summit at which he pressed Pyongyang's key ally to do more to curb North Korea's nuclear ambitions.
Trump's decision to fire Tomahawk cruise missiles on a Syrian air base in retaliation for President Bashar al-Assad's deadly chemical weapons attack on civilians - which came during Trump's dinner with Xi - has been seen as a message that his administration is willing to translate words into action.
He said, "The message that any nation can take is: if you violate global norms, if you violate worldwide agreements, if you fail to live up to commitments, if you become a threat to others, at some point a response is likely to be undertaken". The hermit state has launched several missile tests this year and most recently took issue with the USA missile strike on an airbase in Syria last Friday.
Hagiuda said that given the Trump-Xi meeting, the Japanese and US leaders discussed how Japan, the United States, South Korea and China should deal with North Korea while working with one another.
US Pacific Command spokesman Dave Benham, in commenting on the repositioning of the carrier strike group to waters near North Korea, said, "The No 1 threat in the region continues to be North Korea, due to its reckless, irresponsible and destabilising program of missile tests and pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability".
In a separate interview with CBS' "Face the Nation" on Sunday, Tillerson said, "President Xi clearly understands, and I think agrees, that the situation has intensified and has reached a certain level of threat that action has to be taken".
South Korea will enhance its policy coordination with the US in a way that the latest US-China talks could bear progress in the North Korean nuclear issue, the ministry noted.
South Korea's top nuclear envoy made the comment after talks with his Chinese counterpart Wu Dawei, as the United States sent a naval strike group to the region in a show of force.
"The U.S.is making up its mind to stop the North from conducting further nuclear tests".
He added he explained that the THAAD deployment is purely defensive and aimed at containing North Korean missile attacks.
Speculation of an imminent nuclear test is brewing as North Korea marks major anniversaries this month, including the 105th birthday of its founding leader, which is usually celebrated with a demonstration of military might.